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Click on an IPA symbol to see a demonstration of a hand drawing of the symbol.

Click he manner (e.g. 'Fricatives') to see the whole set of English phones within that sound type being transcribed.

IPA transcription of children, young people and adults with Speech sound Disorder (SSD) requires 'live' on the spot transcription using a pen and paper (or possibly an iPad and Apple Pencil or similar tablet and stylus set up). It's not currently possible to type quickly enough using the specialist IPA symbols to capture utterances from a client. In addition, many online case note storage systems cannot deal with specialised IPA fonts and symbols.

It is better's therefore to transcribe live and by hand, and upload a PDF or image of the recording form(s).

It is possible that Artificial Intelligence (AI) may be able to transcribe in the future. However, with training of AI largely undertaken using less experienced transcribers (such as Speech and Language Therapy students), this may not be as reliable as professional transcribers.

The IPA chart - How to hand write the symbols

English phonemes realised as phones (n=)
All English phone videos are completed in longer category videos. To see these videos, click under the manner category or the heading in the list below:

Total number of English phones n=24 (plus allophones)

Single phones (all languages) can be accessed by clicking on the IPA symbol within the chart below
  • Plosives (n=13)
  • Nasals (n=7)
  • Trills (n=3)
  • Taps (n=3)
  • Fricatives (n=22)
  • Lateral fricatives (n=2)
  • Approximants (n=5)
  • Lateral approximants (n=4)

Total number of IPA symbols (main chart) n=59

PLACE of articulation within the vocal tract /
MANNER of production


Lower lip contact with upper teeth

Tongue blade on upper teeth

Gum ledge behind the top teeth

After the gum line behind the top teeth

Tongue curled backwards

Hard palate

Velum or soft palate

The uvular hang down at the margin of the soft palate


Glottis is the gap between the vocal cords

Air builds up behind the blockage and is suddenly released
See all English Plosives here

[ ʈ ] [ ɖ ]

[ c ] [ ɟ ]

[ q ] [ G ]

[ ʔ ] [ Not possible ]
Air is directed through the nasal cavity by the velum being lowered
See all English nasals here

[ m ]

[ ɱ ]

[ n ]

[ ɳ ]

[ ɲ ]

[ ŋ ]

[ N ]

Not possible

Not possible

A series of taps or flaps in short succession

[ B ]

[ r ]

[ R ]

Tap or Flap
A short, rapid flick of the tongue
[ ]

[ ɾ ]

[ ɽ ]

Air moves through an obstruction unevenly and twirls to make a characteristic scratchy sound
See all English fricatives here

[ ɸ ] [ β ]

[ f ] [ v ]

[ θ ] [ ð ]

[ s ] [ z ]

[ ʃ ] [ ʒ ]

[ ʂ ] [ ʐ ]

[ ç ] [ ʝ ]

[ x ] [ ɣ ]

[ χ ] [ ʁ ]

[ ħ ] [ ʕ ]

[ h ] [ ɦ ]

Lateral Fricative
Scratchy sound when air moves out the sides rather than the middle of the mouth. Tongue edges are lowered.

[ ɬ ] [ ɮ ]

The active articulator moves towards the structure but lowers again at the last moment and doesn't make contact
See all approximant and laterals here

[ ʋ ]

[ ɹ ]

[ ɻ ]

[ j ]

[ ɰ ]

Lateral approximant
The active articulator moves towards the structure at the side of the mouth but doesn't make contact

[ l ]

[ ɭ ]

[ ʎ ]

[ L ]

Click on the IPA symbols above to see a video on how to transcribe that phone.
Note: you may need to scroll horizontally to see the whole IPA chart and symbols.

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The videos of transcription were made using QuickTime on an iMac to make screen recordings of an iPad.

The iPad has a Paperlike screen protector, and the transcriptions were made using an Apple Pencil and the Noteshelf 2 app.

See how here.

Phonetic transcriptions and symbols were printed using:
Szynalski, T.P. (2024). Type IPA phonetic symbols.

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